(1) Westcott and Hort's Favored Manuscripts Bear the Marks of Those
Corrupted by Gnostic Adoptionists in the 2nd Century.
There were two manuscripts Westcott and Hort favored most. The first is
CODEX B (Vaticanus). The second is ALEPH (Sinaiticus). They called these
manuscripts "almost wholly neutral". They deemed the readings of these
"strongly preferred," and said they had the "ring of genuineness". It is
manifest that these manuscripts bear all the marks of Gnostic corruptions.
This is evidenced in that they show (a) deviations along Gnostic doctrinal
lines, (b) wild discordance with each other (c) wild discordance with
manuscripts of similar age and (d) wild discordance with the traditional text.
Since ALEPH and B exhibit the marks of Gnostic corruption, it is clear that
these two manuscripts are depraved.
(a) These Manuscripts (ALEPH and B)
Show Deviations Along Gnostic Doctrinal Lines.
The changes found in the modern English Bibles are due in large measure
to the modification of the Greek text to agree with ALEPH and B. This may be
proved by considering some sample section of scripture such as Mark 2:1-12.
In these twelve verses Westcott and Hort adopt 23 variations. A variation is
a deviation from the traditional text. A variation may be any one of the
standard phenomena of text criticism including omitted words, added words,
substituted words, transposed words, variation of case, tense, spelling or
phrase. Of these 23 variations, in 18 ALEPH and B agree, in 2 ALEPH is
unsupported by B, and in 2 B is unsupported by ALEPH [3, p. 16]. The reader
may correlate doctrinal changes himself against the following summary of
Gnostic doctrine [7, p. 74-79].
Gnosticism may be summed up into three false doctrines to which all
others must give way. These three false doctrines are (I) Spiritism: the
belief that the supreme God is unknowable and a hierarchical array of
intermediary spirits exist the lowest of which is Jehovah (the creator and God
of the Jews), (II) Anti-Materialism: the belief that sin resides in matter,
and (III) Illuminism: the belief that salvation comes by secret knowledge
supplied by intermediate spirits. In essence this system is devil worship
because it says the lowest spirit is the creator (Jehovah of the Jews). This
not only places all devils and Satan above the true God, but also ascribes to
the true God the multiplication of evil by creating the (evil) material world,
and robs Jesus of the prophetic office giving it to devils and Satan.
Some examples of how these Gnostic corruptions have crept into the
modern versions may be found by comparing the NIV to the KJV. The former uses
the Greek text of Westcott and Hort, while the latter follows the traditional
Greek text. A comparative study of the first 12 chapters of Luke with a more
detailed description of Gnostic false doctrine gives the following evidence of
Those Gnostic false doctrines related to Spiritism are: The Jewish
Scriptures are looked on as an inferior revelation, and several extra-biblical
accounts of creation are used. The trinity is denied. By substituting a
pantheon of devils for the true God, the importance of the true God is
minimized. Meanwhile the status of the devils is elevated saying that they
dwell in light. The miracles worked by God are diminished because they want
to say that the false wonders produced by devils are better. Redemption is
the release of the spirit from the prison house of it's (evil) body. [7, p.
Spiritism is reflected in the first 12 chapters of Luke (NIV) by those
passages that diminish the wickedness of the devils, those that diminish the
authority of Christ over the devils, those that diminish the authority of the
Father over devils, and those that diminish the opposition of the true God to
evil. The wickedness of devils and the authority of Christ over devils are
diminished in Luke 4:8 where the NIV deletes the words in CAPS from "And Jesus
answered AND SAID UNTO HIM, GET THEE BEHIND ME, SATAN for it is written, Thou
shalt worship the Lord." The authority of the Father over devils is
diminished in Luke 11:2 when the Lord's Prayer is butchered denying the fact
that the father dwells in heaven and His will is done there. The NIV deletes
the words in CAPS "OUR Father WHICH ART IN HEAVEN hallowed be thy name, thy
kingdom come THY WILL BE DONE, AS IN HEAVEN, SO IN EARTH". This is also shown
by turning the
in the KJV into just the kingdom in Luke 12:31.
The opposition of the true God to evil is diminished when the words "DELIVER
US FROM EVIL" are cut out of the Lord's Prayer in the NIV Luke 11:4.
Those Gnostic false doctrines related to Anti-Materialism are: The fall
is equated with the creation of matter. The resurrection of the dead is
denied. Two different denials of Christ's Divine or human nature. (A) Some
say his body was not real, but a phantom. (B) Others say that he was a mere
man prior to his baptism, and after
Gethsemane(Adoptionism, which amounts to
an accusation of demon possession).
Both of these deny Christ's real humanity
before baptism and during His passion on the cross.
Anti-Materialism is reflected in the first 12 chapters of Luke (NIV) by
those passages that reflect Adoptionism. Adoptionism says that Jesus was an
ordinary mere man before His baptism, and that He was possessed by the pure
spirit Christ who descended on Him at His baptism. The adoptionist influence
is revealed by denial of the virgin birth in Luke 2:33 where the KJV has
"Joseph" but the NIV has "father" and in Luke 2:43 where the KJV has "Joseph
and his mother" and the NIV has "parents". In Luke 9:35 the KJV has God
calling Jesus His "beloved Son" but the NIV has "Son, whom I have chosen".
The latter is consistent with Adoptionism, while the former is not.
Jesus words in KJV Luke 9:55-56 make Adoptionism impossible "Ye know not
what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy
men's lives, but to save them." The problem this poses to Adoptionism is that
Jesus ascribes salvation particularly to His human nature when He says it is
the "Son_of_man" who is come to save. This denies the Adoptionist belief that
the Christ is merely a possessing spirit. It also directly denies the Gnostic
notion that the mission of the redeemer is to bring about death to free the
good spirit from it's evil body. Instead Jesus says here that His mission is
to save life. This wholesale rejection of adoptionistic gnosticism is why
these words of Jesus were cut out in the ancient corrupt manuscripts, and not
included in the NIV.
Those Gnostic false doctrines related to Illuminism are: Man is saved
by knowledge not faith, so there is no need for God's Law or repentance.
Knowledge is given by the redeemer (implying death). Knowledge is given by
any of the intermediary spirits who are above scripture. There are three
types of men: those who cannot be saved, those who may or may not be saved,
and those who can be sure of their salvation. The knowledge is only given
secretly to the elite. This implies infiltration and pretended fellowship with
the uninitiated (Orthodox Christians). The secret revelation tends toward
notions of hidden ciphers in scripture.
Illuminism is reflected in the first 12 chapters of Luke (NIV) by those
passages that deny the importance of the Word of God and remove the rebuke of
hypocrisy. (See also those passages above that diminish God's importance and
exalt devils). In Luke 4:4 the words in CAPS are excised from the NIV "It is
written that man shall not live by bread alone BUT BY EVERY WORD OF GOD". In
Luke 6 Jesus said that someone who hears His sayings and does them is like one
who built upon rock. Clearly the rock is God's Word. Where the KJV
recognizes that the cause of the house standing is that it "was founded upon a
rock" the NIV has that it was "well-built". The hallmark of Illuminism is a
secret revelation reserved only for the elite. They condescend to unite with
the Orthodox Christians even though they don't agree with them in doctrine.
They think that they are giving us time to be enlightened by their initiation.
In other words they enshrine hypocrisy. The NIV, based on the Gnostic corrupt
Greek of Westcott and Hort, excises the accusation of hypocrite in several
places, one of which is in the twelve chapters under consideration Luke 11:44.
A recent work by
Taylor makes it very easy for anyone who cannot
read Greek to compare the more significant variations adopted based on
variation of the Greek text. Counting the deviations (listed in ) which
resulted from a difference in the Greek text in the book of Matthew 55 of 94
deviations favored Gnostic doctrine, while none of the 94 deviations went
against Gnostic doctrine. Twenty-four of them favored spiritism, 16 favored
anti-materialism and 15 favored illuminism. Counting the deviations (listed
in ) which resulted from a difference in the Greek text in the book of Luke
62 of 83 deviations favored Gnostic doctrine, while none of the 83 deviations
went against Gnostic doctrine. Thirty-two of these favored spiritism, 14
favored anti-materialism and 16 favored illuminism. The large number of text
modifications that don't appear to support Gnostic beliefs may be due to
"corrective" modification of a later Gnostic hand. A more likely hypothesis
that warrants further investigation is that the modifications were made so
that the text would conform to some hidden cipher system. At least one author
has used the numerical symmetry of the Westcott and Hort text as an argument
for it's authenticity and inspiration . God has never promised numerical
symmetry, and He expressly denies any hidden meaning [Isa. 45:18-19, 2 Cor.
4:3-4]. It is significant that in both Matthew and Luke the largest number of
deviations concern Spiritism (about half that favor Gnosticism). Can you say
that it doesn't matter which version is used in light of this? God says in
scripture "Thou shalt have no other gods before me". Exodus 20:3.
The disagreement of the NIV compared to the KJV is often the result of a
different underlying Greek text. When this is the case, the English reader
may compare the difference in content to Gnostic false doctrine and judge for
himself whether the KJV or the NIV favors Gnosticism. When this exercise is
performed it is found that about one out of two changes in the NIV based on
different Greek favors Gnosticism, and no changes contradict Gnosticism. The
changes in the Greek text used for NIV translation are largely based on the
Greek text of Westcott and Hort. Since Westcott and Hort put an extremely
heavy emphasis on two manuscripts heretofore rejected as depraved texts, one
may conclude that these manuscripts are the result of the Gnostic manuscript
corruption reported in history.
(b) These Manuscripts (ALEPH and B)
Show Wild Discordance Within the Set.
Recall that the two favored manuscripts of Westcott and Hort are known
as ALEPH and B. Since these two manuscripts originated at nearly the same
time, and are believed by all to have originated from a common ancestor, a
high degree of disagreement between the two manuscripts is evidence that they
are Gnostic corruptions. This may be concluded because those who report the
Gnostic corruptions in history tell us that
"If anyone will take the trouble to collect their several copies
and compare them, he will discover frequent divergences; for
example, Ascelepiades's copies do not agree with Theodotus's. A
large number are obtainable, thanks to the emulous energy with
which disciples copied the 'emendations' or rather perversions of
the text by their respective masters....it is possible to collate
the ones which his disciples made first with those that have
undergone further manipulation, and to find endless
discrepancies." [4, p. 237]
In order to establish a basis of comparison, two other manuscripts about
the same age as ALEPH will be considered that don't show the marks of Gnostic
ALEPH and B are so closely related that one of their advocates claimed
the same copyist worked on part of the two manuscripts [3, p. 318]. The two
manuscripts are believed to be about 50 to 100 years apart in age. The time
span is very short and the kinship is admitted on all sides. Westcott and
Hort put them in the same class and call them highly preferred. But in this
short period of time, these two manuscripts show wild variation given the
short time between the two. In the four Gospels alone B has 589 readings
peculiar to itself, affecting 858 words, but ALEPH has 1460 such readings
affecting 2640 words. In perhaps 100 short years the number of peculiar
readings grew by 871 [3, p. 318].
Compare this to two more reliable manuscripts A and C. About 400 years
passed from the time the gospels were penned to the time that A and C were
copied. Yet in
St.Luke's Gospel A has only 90 peculiar readings affecting
131 words and C has 87 peculiar readings affecting 127 words [3, p. 249].
Thus the rate of corruption of either A or C compared to the traditional
text is less than one ninth of the rate of corruption of ALEPH compared to B.
The warning from history of wild variation existing within the set of
manuscripts tainted with Gnostic corruptions allows the determination to be
made conclusively that ALEPH and B have been depraved through Gnostic
corruptions. The high rate of corruption of ALEPH compared to B supports this
(c) These Manuscripts (ALEPH and B)
Show Wild Discordance With Manuscripts of Similar Age.
History reports of those who produced manuscripts tainted with Gnostic
corruptions that "they did not receive the Scriptures in such a condition from
their first teachers, and ... cannot produce any originals to justify their
copies." [3, p. 249]
Consider the ten verses of Luke 8:35-44 collated with the Gnostic
corruptions ALEPH and B, compared with reliable manuscripts A and C. Recall
that a variation is a deviation from the traditional text. A variation may be
any one of the standard phenomena of text criticism including omitted words,
added words, substituted words, transposed words, variation of case, tense,
spelling or phrase. ALEPH has 27 variations compared to the traditional text,
and B has 25. ALEPH has 8 readings peculiar to itself and B has 6, yet show 4
common variants. The variants of B are supported by A in only one place, and
by C in only one place. The variants of ALEPH are supported by A in only one
place, and by C in only one place. [3, p. 17]
This illustrates that ALEPH and B are discordant with manuscripts of
similar date. Of the 27 variations that ALEPH displays in this passage only
one is supported by A, and only one is supported by C. Of the 25 variations
displayed by B, only one is supported by A and only one by C. Since
discordance with manuscripts of similar date is one of the characteristics of
the Gnostic corruptions, this discordance supports the thesis that ALEPH and B
are Gnostic corruptions.
(d) These Manuscripts (ALEPH and B)
Show Wild Discordance with the Traditional Text.
The wild discordance of ALEPH and B with the traditional text is a
further witness to the fact that they are Gnostic corruptions of the genuine
autographs. Westcott and Hort concede in their textual theory that the
traditional text is every bit as ancient as the more ancient of ALEPH and B
(B). They further acknowledge that it was the consensus of all Church fathers
living at the time that the traditional text was identical with the genuine
autographs. [2, p. 92]
From church history we know that one of the characteristics of the
Gnostic corrupt manuscripts was their wild discordance with the traditional
text. In the gospels alone ALEPH and B are shown to be wildly discordant: B
shows 7578 variations and ALEPH shows 8972 variations. [3, p. 289] This is
surprisingly large since the Gospels contain about 61,400 words, these two
manuscripts exhibit a variation of about one word in ten. [3, p. 264]